INDIANA’S BICENTENIAL STAR
That’s right, Indiana has an officially designated Bicentennial Star and you can see it high in the E, SE, S, or SW depending upon the date and time all fall, any clear night.
Scheat is the name of our Bicentennial Star. It is the 2nd brightest star in the Constellation of Pegasus, and so astronomers also know it as Beta Pegasi. A slightly variable red giant, Scheat is located in the northwest corner of the Great Square of Pegasus.
Classified as M2.5 II-III star, Scheat is about 340 times more luminous than our Sun. However, being a class M or Red Giant, Scheat puts out most of its luminosity in the Infrared part of the spectrum that we cannot see with our eyes, though we can detect some infrared with our skin as heat. Taking the entire spectrum of Scheat’s light then, Scheat is 1500 times more luminous than the Sun. Big, bright and visually red, but at good distance from us, Scheat shines in the square of Pegasus at about 2.5 apparent magnitude.
Scheat is 200 light years from Earth, which is why Indiana has adopted it as its Bicentennial Star.
When you look at Scheat this fall, the light you are seeing left the star in the fall of 1816. When that light ends its journey by striking your retina in your eye, it causes an electro-chemical signal to your brain and you see Scheat. Think of it! 200 years of travel for that photon of light to get to you, it left Scheat the same time Indiana became a state.
So check out Scheat many times this fall, and become a part of a 200-year journey. Try looking at Scheat with binoculars and see if you can detect its reddish (weak orange or pink) color. Clear moonless night would be better and of course make sure no direct light from street lights, porch lights, etc., i.e., glare is not shining directly in your eyes.
For more info on Scheat including how to find it in the sky, and other Bicentennial activates related to the sky, visit the Nightwise website.
Also visit our State Bicentennial Website.
Former Schouweiler Planetarium Staff Artist, Jackie Baughman has developed some Bicentennial Star resources for teachers and others. Contact Jackie at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are interested.
TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE AUGUST 21, 2017
Across the entire midsection of The United States
You won’t want to miss this. Fort Wayne and the surrounding area will have about 87% or so of the Sun blocked by the moon.
However, this eclipse is special because the band of totality runs the entire length of the US and passes through western Kentucky including the “land between the Lakes”. Maximum eclipse duration occurs in Western Kentucky, which is a comparatively short trip from Northern Indiana.
At this writing in mid September 2016, it is not too early —it may be nearly too late— to make arrangements. Hotels, motels etc., from coast to cost have been reserving rooms for more than a year now.
So make your plans. Many astronomy friends I know have already booked their rooms for the eclipse somewhere along the centerline. Their plans also include the ability to hop in their vehicle on eclipse day and drive, if necessary, 100 miles or more should the skies not be clear where they are staying.
The Great American Eclipse an Eclipse 2017 “one stop website” that can help you make your plans, and lead you to many other helpful sites. You will also find links to suppliers of low to high cost eye protection, a must for solar eclipse viewing to avoid permanent blindness.
For those who cannot travel to to the path of totality and will be remaining in the Fort Wayne area on eclipse day, the Fort Wayne Astronomical Society will provide information leading up to the eclipse and probably a staffed community eclipse viewing station where you can safely watch the entire partial eclipse. Check out the society’s website monthly for the latest on the Eclipse and other astronomical events, including the schedule for Saturday night StarGazing April through November and directions to the Society’s new observatory.
CHRISTMAS AGAIN: OCTOBER 2015
The third Venus/Jupiter conjunction of a V/J conjunction trio that began in the fall of 2014, is now coming to a conclusion this month, October 2015.
Many astronomers and biblical scholars now believe that the trio of Venus/Jupiter conjunctions that occurred between late August 3 BC and the early winter of 2 BC were what the Wisemen saw from their home country of Persia. It is believed that seeing the first two conjunctions moved the Magi to travel hundreds of miles to Jerusalem and follow the “star”—the third conjunction— to Bethlehem and the house where the Christ Child and his parents were living at the time. (Matthew 2:1-13)
The predawn sky of fall 2014 started the present conjunction trio. Perhaps you watched the June/July conjunction in the post sunset sky this year. On June 30-July1, Jupiter and Venus appeared to almost touch in our sky.
On June 17, 2 BC, the Wisemen saw Venus and Jupiter become one star for that one night. Perhaps this June 17 “fusion” of Jupiter and Venus motivated the Wisemen to assemble their caravan and travel hundreds of miles to Jerusalem to confer with King Herod. They told Herod and his advisors of the “star” they saw back in their homeland in the east.
Arriving in Jerusalem late summer/early fall 2 BC, they met with Herod and then headed south from Jerusalem to Bethlehem, with Venus and Jupiter together on their left, seemingly moving with them. If upon reaching Bethlehem, they turned left onto an eastbound road, the “star” would have been right in front of them. If they approached eastward to the house were Jesus and family were staying, Venus and Jupiter would have been seen over the house.
If you are up an hour or so before the Sun this month, and in particular the mornings of October 22-31, you will see Jupiter and Venus move closer together and then apart, a different position each day. Try this experiment: if you can find a safe place to walk south for a bit or drive for a few miles south, you will see the two planets to your left and “staying with you.” It is not uncommon to sense that low objects in the sky are maintaining a parallel course with you. Then turn left and head east or in this case ESE and the “star” —Jupiter and Venus— will “stop” and stay in front of you as you travel, perhaps even over a building if one is in the right place.
Well. whether or not you try to safely recreate the ride of the Wisemen, use the charts below and don’t miss every clear sky an hour before dawn this month of October and, in particular, the last week and a half of October. Whether or not the Wisemen story is part of your belief system, this Venus-Jupiter conjunction will be beautiful and not to be repeated in your lifetime. You might want to point Venus and Jupiter out to your children, perhaps on a weekend morning. Then show them how to safely watch for a minute or two each clear morning while they are waiting for the school bus or getting ready for school.
If you get any good pictures of the conjunction, contact Kathleen Lotter our booking secretary, to make arrangements to share them with us. We will try and add a picture or two to this artcle in a later updated version.
But wait! There’s more!
Venus and Jupiter are the brightest objects in the sky after the Sun and the Moon. However, Mercury will be nearer the eastern horizon most of the month and bright, assuming there is no horizon haze. Mars will be moving between and around Venus and Jupiter the entire month. On October 17 Mars will be very close to the upper left of Jupiter with Jupiter and Mars to the left and below the brighter Venus.
October 2015 is also a month you can see all 5 naked eye planets. Saturn is to southwest for an hour or so after sunset, and Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter in the east-southeast an hour or so before sunrise. This is a preview of things to come in January and February 2016, when, in the predawn early morning sky, you will be able to see all 5 planets stretched out in an arc from southeast to west: Mercury, Venus, Saturn, Mars, Jupiter. Stay tuned.
Thanks to our friends at the Abrams Planetarium, East Lansing, Michigan, for allowing us to reprint part of their October Sky Calendar. The link for the Sky Calendar is on our links page. This would be a good time to subscribe at $12.00/year: three months of charts, delivered by the postal service to your door four times a year. That way you will never miss the free nightly show of the sky.
TOTAL Eclipse OF THE MOON SUNDAY SEPTEMBER 27, 2015.
This eclipse is the last lunar eclipse visible from Fort Wayne for some years. Unlike the last few, which were partial and underway at sunrise or sunset, this eclipse is ideally timed, total and on a Sunday.
So whether you view the eclipse from home or join others at a viewing site you won’t want to miss it —assuming the weather is cooperative.
Those with young children are encouraged to arrange their schedule so they can experience at least part of this eclipse from just before 9 PM so they can see the un eclipsed full moon just before the start of the eclipse at 9:07 PM through part of the total phase, say until about 10:45 when the moon will be its darkest and nearest to the center of the earth’s shadow.
The University of Saint Francis Schouweiler Planetarium and the Fort Wayne Astronomical Society (FWAS) are providing two locations for area residents to view The Total Eclipse of the Moon Sunday Evening September 27.
Sunday’s Lunar Eclipse can be seen from any location across North America, between the hours of 9:07 PM and 12:27 AM by anyone, weather permitting. No special equipment is needed. The only thing you need is a clear line of site to the moon, and of course a clear sky.
Those wishing to experience the eclipse with others are invited to drop in on one or both of the viewing sites any time between the hours of 8:30 PM and 12:30 AM.
Fort Wayne Astronomical Society members and Schouweiler Planetarium Staff will be present to answer questions. Telescopes will be available to watch the earth’s shadow race across the moon’s craters during partial eclipse phases. During (totality 10:11 PM-11:23 PM) when the moon will darken to dull reddish orange, telescopes will be available for fainter celestial objects, including possibly the planets Uranus and Neptune.
Join us for all or part of the evening at either or both of Lunar Eclipse viewing sites, if the sky is clear enough to see the moon.
New Haven: Jefferson Township Park, Fort Wayne Astronomical Society Observatory. Take Dawkins Road (Old Rout 14) east out of New Haven. Turn Left (N) onto Webster Road over the railroad tracks, then left into Jefferson Twp Park proceeding slowly and carefully until you see parked cars and people. Or set your GPS device for: 1730 South Webster Road, New Haven 46774 and follow.
Fort Wayne: University of Saint Francis East Campus, south end of loop drive at Achatz Hall and Planetarium building. Turn from Spring Street at stoplight south on to Leesburg Road and right into 2nd entrance to campus. Straight past the parking lots to the loop in front of Achatz Hall and Planetarium. Park where you can and walk to the south end of the loop drive. Viewing will be from the south end of the loop and the lawn at the end of Achatz.
Whether you join others at the sites or simply stay home, you and your family will not want to miss this ideally timed Harvest Moon Eclipse. The next lunar eclipse will be January 31, 2018 and not visible from our location.
CHRISTMAS NOW: JUNE-JULY 2015
The 2015 conjunction is in its final stages now and every night the gap closing. Venus is drawing nearer to Jupiter as seen in the western sky for a few hours each night after sunset.
On June 30 and July 1, Jupiter will be less than a half of a degree apart! That’s about a half a pinky width with your arm extended.
The June issue of Sky & Telescope magazine calls this Jupiter-Venus conjunction, “…not only close, but also truly epic in other respects. This is the middle event in a trio of Venus-Jupiter conjunctions that closely resembles the series that might have been the appearances of the Star of Bethlehem in 3-2 BC.”
Over about an 18-month period starting in August 3 BC and continuing until the end of 2 BC, there were 3 conjunctions of Jupiter and Venus in the constellation of Leo. On June 17, 2 BC, Venus and Jupiter, seen from the Middle East, became one “star.” The Wisemen did not have the telescope needed to see that they were still 2 objects very close to each other. It would be another 1,600 years before the invention of the telescope.
In the ancient world, the word “star” was a generic word meaning anything in the sky that lights up at night, including the five naked eye “wandering stars.” The Greek word planetes means, “wandering star.”
Last fall 2014, like in 3 BC, Jupiter and Venus were together in the same part of the sky in the early morning twilight.
This month, on June 30 and July 1, Jupiter and Venus will again be very close to each other.
Unless your eyesight is as bad or worse than mine, you will still see two separate planets. Binoculars will show both in the same field of view. If you can hold the binoculars steady or have a way to mount them on a tripod, you will also see the 4 brightest moons of Jupiter. A small telescope on a tripod will show the same view in a low power eyepiece.
While you are looking, remember this is a line of sight illusion from an Earth vantage point as we move around the Sun. Venus is catching up to us as it moves around the Sun faster than Earth.
As we look past Venus to the other side of the Sun and out beyond the orbits of Venus, Earth and Mars, we see Jupiter as we are catching up to it with our faster orbital speed.
This is sort of like traveling in the center lane of an expressway, looking at the faster cars going by on the left, as you are passing and looking at the slower cars on the right. Imagine the interstate circular like a racetrack and you have a model of the Solar System.
Venus is about the size of the Earth, Jupiter much larger. However, because Venus is relatively nearby, it will look about the same size as Jupiter, which is on the other side of the Sun and much further away. Venus is in a crescent phase, but because of its apparent near size and dense cloud cover, it reflects more sunlight and looks brighter than Jupiter in Earth’s sky.
So get outside for a few minutes every clear night between now and mid-July, and look west anytime between 45 minutes or so after the Sun sets until about 11 PM.
This will be the only time in your life you will be able to see in the sky nearly the same “star” that probably was the original Christmas Star. By the end of July, Venus and Jupiter will get lost in the sunset glare.
Check it out every clear night for a few minutes; you will be amazed by what you see. If you were watching Saturday June 20, the sight was stunning, waxing crescent moon, Jupiter and Venus in a perfect triangle.
Hopefully you will have clear skies on the 30th and 1st as Jupiter and Venus almost touch and then exchange places.
Jupiter and Venus will be near each other again in the predawn sky this fall as they were in the fall of 2 BC. For the rest of the story, you will have to come to our planetarium show Star of Bethlehem 2015 during its three week run in December.
Thanks to our colleagues at the Abrams Planetarium, Michigan State University for permission to reprint a portion of their June and July Sky Calendars. You can do no better than a $12 a year subscription to the Sky Calendar to keep up on the night sky. Your 12 bucks delivers 3 months of the double-sided monthly Star Chart/Sky Calendar 4 times a year to your mailbox.
Thanks to Sky & Telescope magazine for permission to print the Dusk June 30 chart. Founded in 1941, Sky and Tel has been the essential guide to astronomy for decades. Follow the link for subscription info and all kinds of on line free info about the sky.
Thanks also to the founders of The Way International, New Knoxville, Ohio, who, in the early 1980’s alerted astronomers and biblical scholars to the series of Jupiter-Venus conjunctions in 3-2 BCE. If I recall correctly, soon after Sky and Telescope and others spread the information and then scientific community soon verified the 3-2 BC events.
By the early 1990’s the Adler Planetarium in Chicago had created a new “Star of Wonder” show for the holidays, others soon followed. The Schouweiler’s totally new Christmas show “Star of Bethlehem 2000” and updated revisions each following year present the 3-2 BC Jupiter-Venus conjunctions and the June 17,2 BC “fusion” of the two as the Christmas star.
If you catch any successful images of the Jupiter-Venus conjunction from a Fort Wayne area site over the next few weeks, contact Kathleen Lotter in the Planetarium booking office and she will put you in touch with me. I would like to feature various images of the June-July conjunction in our “Star of Bethlehem 2015” holiday show.
A Pluto Celebration
The Schouweiler Planetarium and The Fort Wayne Astronomical Society have, with assistance from TekVenture and Sky & Telescope Magazine, combined forces to produce a series of public informational experiences on Binary Dwarf Planet Pluto. The events are designed to inform and prepare area residents for the July 14 fly through of Pluto’s system of 5 moons by the New Horizons spacecraft.
After a ten-year, 3 Billion mile journey, New Horizons, the fastest spacecraft ever to launch from Earth, is currently on final approach to Pluto. At this writing, the piano sized spacecraft is performing as planned, its final fight path has been tweaked and the route through Pluto’s unknown space containing 5 moons seems clear of previously unknown objects.
Plan to join the Schouweiler Staff, and our Fort Wayne Astronomical Society colleagues for our July Pluto Celebration Events.
The Pluto Celebration is
Two Identical Free Public Evening Events
Event 1: Pluto Up Close and Personal
7:30 PM Thursday, July 2, 2015
University Campus, Gunderson Auditorium, Achatz Hall of Science & Schouweiler Planetarium
An evening of “All things Pluto,” Planetarium Staff and FWAS members presenting:
- Historical — More than a century of Pluto Lore, Facts and Discovery Stories
- Science —The IAU, why Pluto is now classified a Binary Dwarf Planet
- Our current understanding of the Solar System — the Sun to the Oort Cloud
- New Horizons Mission and Spacecraft — 1990’s through 2014
- New Horizons 2015 and Pluto the week of July 14
- What’s next for New Horizons — 2015-2020
- And take home handouts and information, courtesy of Sky and Telescope Magazine, door prizes, and perhaps a few surprises from a current New Horizons download.
Event 2: 7:30 PM Wednesday, July 8, 2015
Pluto Up Close and Personal
University Campus, Gunderson Auditorium, Achatz Hall of Science & Schouweiler Planetarium
An evening of “all things Pluto”
A repeat of the above —including door prizes— except the sharing of new data from New Horizons since the July 2nd Event.
Pluto Telescope Observing Attempts Clear Saturday Evenings in July
Starting at dusk at the Fort Wayne Astronomical Society observatory site, Jefferson Township Park, rural New Haven: “Attempts” is the Keyword here, hope would be another key word.
Pluto is an extremely difficult object to locate in smaller telescopes, however it is within reach of the Fort Wayne Astronomical Society’s 16-inch Richard Johnson Telescope. The task is more daunting this year because Pluto is in the same part of the sky as our Galaxy, the Milky Way. In other words, Pluto will be one tiny dot of light among many tiny dots of light in the telescope.
Never the less, at least one attempt will be made every clear Saturday night in July. So come out anyway. Depending upon your arrival time, there are 3 additional planets to see, all beautiful, some with moons, rings and big enough to see their shape in the telescope. Many other possible objects too: double stars, nebula, and star clusters, the list goes on.
Click here for the FWAS Web Site for complete info, map and directions as well as weather disclaimers for Saturday night viewing every clear Saturday, April through November at their JTP observatory.
Pluto-New Horizons Updates During All Planetarium 3 Rivers Festival Shows
Pluto New Horizons Updates will be part of all 8 Schouweiler Planetarium Three Rivers Festival shows, both weekends, Family Matinees and Evening Shows.
The Public Programs page of this Planetarium Website will have the detailed 3-Rivers show schedule and details posted by Tuesday June 30.
The Pluto Celebration partners may decide to sponsor additional Pluto-New Horizons events later in the year and beyond. After Pluto, New Horizons will head on to one or more other dwarf planets of the near Kuiper Belt. Hopefully the mission and spacecraft will continue to be funded into the future until its Department of Energy plutonium power unit is spent. In the mean time, as it continues its journey to the next target, it will take from late summer 2015 for up to 2 years to stream all the uncompressed data it collected during its 2+ days in Pluto space. More unexpected surprises will certainly come from this 2-year data stream. After all, we are going “where no Earth machine has gone before.”